Urology is a field within healthcare focused on diseases of the male and female urinary tract. This includes diseases affecting the urethra, ureters, kidneys, and bladder. In addition, urology manages the male organs responsible for reproduction, including the testes, penis, prostate, and scrotum.
A doctor who studies urology is called a urologist, and they generally possess knowledge and/or training from internal medicine, gynecology, and pediatrics, among other areas of health care. Urology may also be a surgical specialty.
There are seven subspecialties within urology, as named by the American Urological Association:
- Urologic oncology (urologic cancers)
- Pediatric urology
- Female urology
- Male infertility
- Renal (kidney) transplant
- Calculi (urinary tract stones)